As for subsequent times, there are two possible states in respect to non-Muslims.The first is when they are in their own countries, in which case jihad (def: o9.8) is a communal obligation, and this is what our author is speaking of when he says, "Jihad is a communal obligation," meaning upon the Muslims each year.[Reliance of the Traveller, Book O9.1]
Chapter O9.0: Jihad
What is its practical application?
How does that apply to the United States of America?Between 1779 and 1815, the Barbary pirates were attacking America's merchant marine, seizing boats, enslaving their crews and stealing cargo. They demanded payment of tribute for safe passage.
In 1786 Jefferson and John Adams went to negotiate with Tripoli's envoy to London, Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman or (Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja). They asked him by what right he extorted money and took slaves. Jefferson reported to Secretary of State John Jay, and to the Congress:
The ambassador answered us that [the right] was founded on the Laws of the Prophet (Mohammed), that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have answered their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as prisoners, and that every Mussulman (or Muslim) who should be slain in battle was sure to go to heaven. 
8:39. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allâh) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allâh Alone [in the whole of the world ]....
9:29.Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
"I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.' And if they say so, pray like our prayers, face our Qibla and slaughter as we slaughter, then their blood and property will be sacred to us and we will not interfere with them except legally and their reckoning will be with Allah." Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Number 387
Caliph Umar's general told the Persians:
...Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:-- "Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master."... Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 53, Number 386Compare the answer of Sidi Haji Abdrahaman to Bukhari4.53.386:
- ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya
- that it was their right and duty to make war upon them
- Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise
- every Mussulman (or Muslim) who should be slain in battle was sure to go to heaven.
- whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master
- to make slaves of all they could take as prisoners.
- fight them
- Fight against those who
- I have been ordered to fight the people
- The caliph (o25) makes war upon Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians
- I do not know a word of Arabic; can't read a single character of it. Hilali & Khan translated the Qur'an quotes cited above with the exception of the one by Rodwell. I linked to nine parallel translations for easy comparison
- How did Muhammad interpret those ayat?
- What did he do?
- Why does each of the four major hadith collections have a 'book' of Jihad?
- Who interprets the Qur'an correctly, you or Ibn Kathir, who spent his life studying it, its interpretation & application?
- The Order to fight to eradicate Shirk and Kufr
- The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until They give the Jizyah
- Why does Sharia confirm the obvious primal facile meaning of the Qur'an, citing 9:29 as the basis for annual attacks upon disbelievers?
- Why do other Islamic legal scholars confirm the command?
- Al-Shafi'i (God have mercy on him) said: "The least that the imam must do is that he allow no year to pass without having organised a military expedition by himself, or by his raiding parties, according to the Muslims' interest, so that the jihad will only be stopped in a year for a (reasonable) excuse." He said: "If he did not undertake the sending of enough troops to fight, those who are absent (must) go out, and consider as an obligation that which God (who is praised) said."
8:2. The believers are only those who, when Allâh is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur'ân) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone);
61:10. O You who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a painful torment.
61:11. That you believe in Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad ), and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allâh with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know!
61:12. (If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwelling in Gardens of 'Adn Eternity ['Adn (Edn) Paradise], that is indeed the great success.
61:13. And also (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love, help from Allâh (against your enemies) and a near victory. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad ) to the believers.
What is the relationship between Allah & Muslims?
9:111. Verily, Allâh has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allâh's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'ân. And who is truer to his covenant than Allâh? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success .That's what Muslims do; they kill. That's what's wrong with Muslims: they worship and obey a bloodthirsty demon who commands them to subjugate us.
- They fight in Allâh's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed.
- I have Muslim friends; nice people, well behaved.
- Muslims are explicitly commanded, in several ayat, not to befriend Kuffar. I will cite one of them.
- 60:1. O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists, etc.) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism, this Qur'ân, and Muhammad ), and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad ) and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allâh your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists, etc., as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the Straight Path .
- Most Muslims don't engage in Jihad.
- Yet. They haven't been called by their Imam or Mullah. The Ummah is large and the battlefronts are relatively small. Once a sufficient number have answered the call, the rest are relieved unless an emergency occurs.
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 311:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
The Prophet said, on the day of the Conquest of Mecca, "There is no migration (after the Conquest), but Jihad and good intentions, and when you are called for Jihad, you should immediately respond to the call."
- Abu Dawud Book 14, Number 2497:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: He who does not join the warlike expedition (jihad), or equip, or looks well after a warrior's family when he is away, will be smitten by Allah with a sudden calamity. Yazid ibn Abdu Rabbihi said in his tradition: 'before the Day of Resurrection".
- Jihad is an anachronism, only applicable to Moe's lifetime.
- Abu Dawud Book 14, Number 2526
Narrated Anas ibn Malik:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Three things are the roots of faith: to refrain from (killing) a person who utters, "There is no god but Allah" and not to declare him unbeliever whatever sin he commits, and not to excommunicate him from Islam for his any action; and jihad will be performed continuously since the day Allah sent me as a prophet until the day the last member of my community will fight with the Dajjal (Antichrist). The tyranny of any tyrant and the justice of any just (ruler) will not invalidate it. One must have faith in Divine decree.
- Abu Dawud Book 23, Number 3455:
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar:
I heard the Apostle of Allah, (peace_be_upon_him) say: When you enter into the inah transaction, hold the tails of oxen, are pleased with agriculture, and give up conducting jihad (struggle in the way of Allah). Allah will make disgrace prevail over you, and will not withdraw it until you return to your original religion.